AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Journal of Ethics Header

AMA Journal of Ethics®

Illuminating the art of medicine

Virtual Mentor. February 2004, Volume 6, Number 2.

Suggested Reading and Resources

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Resources on Paternalism in Medicine

Further Reading

  • ABIM Foundation. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: a physician charter. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:243-246.
  • American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2004 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2003.
  • American Medical Association. Article II. Obligation of Patients to their Physician. Code of Medical Ethics. Chicago: AMA Press, 1847. Accessed February 2, 2004.
  • Opinion 2.19 Unnecessary Medical Services. Code of Medical Ethics 2008-2009 Edition. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 2008:8182.
  • Opinion 2.225 Optimal Use of Orders-Not-to-Intervene and Advance Directives. Code of Medical Ethics 2008-2009 Edition. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 2008:117-118.
  • Opinion 8.20 Invalid Medical Treatment. Code of Medical Ethics 2008-2009 Edition. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 2008:289.
  • Opinion 10.01 Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship. Code of Medical Ethics 2008-2009 Edition. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 2008:341-347.
  • American Medical Association. Principles of medical ethics. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions, 2002-2003 edition. Accessed January 5, 2003.
  • Annas GJ. The health care proxy and the living will. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1210-1213
  • Anolick K. Foreword. In: Kushner E. Experiencing Abortion: A Weaving of Women's Words. New York: Harrington Park Press; 1997: xii.
  • Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001
  • Beauchamp TL. Paternalism. In: Post SG, ed. Encyclopedia of Bioethics. 3rd ed. MacMillan Library Reference; November 2003:1983-1989.
  • Blackhall LJ, Murphy ST, Frank G, Michel V, Azen S. Ethnicity and attitudes toward patient autonomy. JAMA. 1995;274:820-825
  • Blacks Law Dictionary. 7th ed. 1999:278.
  • Braddock CH, Edwards KA, Hasenberg NM, Laidley TL, Levinson W. Informed decision making in outpatient practice: time to get back to basics. JAMA. 1999;282:2313-2320.
  • Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation Investigators. Comparison of coronary bypass surgery with angioplasty in patients with multivessel disease. New Eng J Med. 1996;335:217-225.
  • Cannon CP. American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2003. What's new in acute coronary syndromes. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/466282. Accessed January 8, 2003.
  • Canterbury v Spence. 150 US App DC 263; 464 F2d 772, 780, aff'd. 409 US 1064.
  • Chervenak F, McCullough L. The threat of the new managed practice of medicine to patients' autonomy. J Clin Ethics. 1995;6:320-323.
  • Cobbs v Grant. 502 P 2d 1: 9-10 (Cal 1972).
  • Coffield AB, Maciosek MV, McGinnis M, et al. Priorities among recommended clinical preventive services. Am J Prevent Med. 2001;21:1-9.
  • Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations; 1996.
  • Cruzan v Director, 110 Sct 2841 (1990).
  • Danis M, Garrett J, Harris R, Patrick DL. Stability of choices about life sustaining treatments. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:567-573
  • Danis M, Southerland LI, Garrett JM, et al. A prospective study of advance directives for life-sustaining care. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:882-888
  • Dax's Case [film]. New York: Concerns for Dying; 1985.
  • Dworkin G. Paternalism. In: Audi R, ed. Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1995: 564.
  • Dworkin, G. Autonomy and behavior control. Hastings Cent Rep. 1976;6:23-28.
  • Eagle KA, Guyton RA, Davidoff R, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: executive summary and recommendations: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1991 Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery). Circulation. 1999;100:1464-80.
  • Emanuel LL, Emanuel EJ, Stoeckle JD, Hummel LR, Barry MJ. Advance directives: stability of patients' treatment choices. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:209-217.
  • Feinberg J. Freedom and behavior control. In: Reich WT, ed, Encyclopedia of Bioethics v 1. New York: The Free Press; 1978:93-101.
  • Feinberg J. Legal paternalism. Can J Philosoph. 1971:105-124.
  • Gibbons RJ, Balady GJ, Beasley JW, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for exercise testing. A report of the American College Of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee On Exercise Testing). J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30:260-311.
  • Gold RB. Lessons From Before Roe: Will Past Be Prologue? New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute; 2003. Accessed January 5, 2003.
  • Guadagnoli E, Ward P. Patient participation in decision-making. Social Sci & Med. 1998;47:329-39.
  • Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. March 2003. Accessed January 26, 2004.
  • Häring B. Medical Ethics. South Bend, Ind: Fides; 1973:199-205.
  • Hastings Center. Guidelines On The Termination Of Life-Sustaining Treatment And Care Of The Dying. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press; 1987.
  • Hermann DHJ. The basis for the right of committed patients to refuse psychotropic medication. J Health Hosp Law. June 1989;22:176, 182-183.
  • Hoffman SN, TenBrook JA, Wolf MP, Pauker SG, Salem DN, Wong JB. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing coronary artery bypass graft with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: one to eight year outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:1293-1304.
  • In the Matter of RH, 622 NE 2d 1071 (1993).
  • Kopelman L. Moral problems in psychiatry: The role of value judgments in psychiatric practice. In: Veatch R, ed. Medical Ethics. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Company; 1997: 275-320.
  • Kopelman L. On the evaluative nature of competency and capacity Judgments. Intl J Law Psychiatr. Fall, 1990;13:309-329.
  • Lebacqz K. Empowerment in the clinical setting. In: McKenny GP, Sande J, eds. Theological Analysis of the Clinical Encounter. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1994:133-147.
  • Little M. The morality of abortion. In: Frey RG, Wellman CH, eds. A Companion to Applied Ethics. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; 2003.
  • McGlynn EA, Asch SM, Adams J, et al. The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2635-2645.
  • Mill JS. On Liberty. Himmelfarb G, ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin; 1974.
  • Naess AC, Foerde R, Steen PA. Patient autonomy in emergency medicine. Med Health Care Philos. 2001;4:71-77.
  • Noah L. Informed consent and the elusive dichotomy between standard and experimental therapy. Am J Law Med. 2002;28:367-8.
  • Palmer RB, Iserson KV. The critical patient who refuses treatment: an ethical dilemma. J Emerg Med. 1997;15:729-33.
  • Patient Self Determination Act of 1990. 42 USC 1395 cc (a) (1) (Q)(supplement 1991).
  • Pellegrino ED, Thomasma DC. The Christian Virtues in Medical Practice. Georgetown University Press: Washington DC; 1996.
  • Please Let Me Die [film]. Galveston: University of Texas, Department of Psychiatry; 1974.
  • Pratt v Davis. 118 Ill App 161, 166 (1905), aff'd, 224 Ill 300 (1906).
  • President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research. A Report On The Ethical, Medical, And Legal Issues In Treatment Decisions. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office; 1983.
  • Puchalski CM, Zhong Z, Jacobs MJ, et al. Patients who want their family and physicians to make resuscitation decisions for them: Observations from SUPPORT and HELP. J Amer Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:S84-90.
  • Quill TE, Brody H. Physician recommendations and patient autonomy: finding a balance between physician power and patient choice. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:763-769.
  • Rihal CS, Raco DL, Gersh BJ, Yusef S. Indications for coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention in chronic stable angina: review of the evidence and methodological considerations. Circulation. 2003;108:2439-2445.
  • Ross R. Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:115-126.
  • Schneider C. The Practice of Autonomy. New York, NY: Oxford Press; 1998.
  • Sehgal A, Galbraith A, Chesney M, Schoenfeld P, Charles G, Lo B. How strictly do dialysis patients want their advance directives followed? JAMA. 1992;267:59-63.
  • Silverstein MD, Stocking CB, Antel JP, Beckwith J. Roos RP, Siegler M. Amytrophic lateral sclerosis and life sustaining therapy: patient's desires for information, participation in decision making, and life-sustaining therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. 1991;66:906-913.
  • Solanki G, Schauffler HH. Cost-sharing and the utilization of clinical preventive services. Am J Prevent Med. 1999;17:127-133.
  • Sulmasy, D. Managed care and the new medical paternalism. J Clin Ethics. 1995;6:324-326.
  • Teno J, Mor V, Fleishman J. Stability of preferences among patients with HIV-related disease. Clin Res. 1991;40:632A.
  • Teno JM, Licks S, Lynn J, et al. Do advance directives provide instructions that direct care? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45:508-512.
  • Teno JM, Stevens M, Spernak S, Lynn J. Role of written advance directives in decision making: insights from qualitative and quantitative data. J Gen Intern Med. 1998;13:439-446.
  • VanDeVeer D. Paternalistic Intervention: The Moral Bounds of Benevolence. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1986.
  • Wears RL. Shared decisionmaking: easier said than done. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28:702-04.
  • Whitlock EP, Orleans CT, Pender N, Allan J. Evaluating primary care behavioral counseling interventions: an evidence-based approach. Am J Prevent Med. 2002;22:267-284.
  • Wilkinson v Vesey. 110 RI 606, 624 (1972).
  • Williams GC, McGregor HA, Sharp D, et al. Testing a self-determination theory intervention for motivating tobacco cessation: supporting autonomy and competence in a clinical trial. Unpublished manuscript, University of Rochester, 2003.
  • Williams GC. Improving patients' health through supporting the autonomy of patients and providers. In: Deci EL, Ryan RM, eds. Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press; 2002:233-254.
  • Williams GC. Policy forum 2. "You can pay me now, or you can pay me later."Virtual Mentor. November 2003. Accessed November 3, 2003.
  • Woolf SH. The need for perspective in evidence-based medicine. JAMA. 1999;282:2358-2365.
  • Zanger DR, Solomon AJ, Gersh BJ. Contemporary management of angina: part II. Medical management of chronic stable angina. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61:129-38.
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