Virtual Mentor

Virtual Mentor. September 2004, Volume 6, Number 9.

Suggested Reading and Resources

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Resources on Medicine and Human Rights

Further Reading

  • Adams KE. Moral diversity among physicians and conscientious refusal of care in the provision of abortion services. J Am Med Women's Assoc. 2003;58:223-226.
  • AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Unpublished minutes. AMA Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL; June 2002.
  • American College of Nurse Midwives. Barriers to Nurse-midwifery Practice. Accessed August 18, 2004.
  • American College of Nurse Midwives. CNM-attended Births Still on the Rise! Accessed August 18, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 9.065 Caring for the poor. Code of Medical Ethics Current Opinions.. Accessed July 5, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Declaration of Professional Responsibility: Medicine's Social Contract with Humanity. Accessed August 25, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Guidelines to prevent malevolent use of biomedical research. Accessed August 19, 2004.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.06 Capital punishment. Code of Medical Ethics Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:18-20.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.065 Court-initiated medical treatments in criminal cases. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:24.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.067 Torture. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press; 2004:24-25.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.07 Clinical investigation. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:25-27.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.071 Subject selection for clinical trials. Code of Medical Ethics,Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:28-29.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.075 The use of placebo controls in clinical trials. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:29-30.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.076 Surgical "placebo" controls. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:30-31.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.077 Ethical considerations in international research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:31-32.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.079 Safeguards in the use of DNA databanks in genomic research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:32-33.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.10 Fetal research guidelines. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:37-38.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.13 Genetic engineering. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:42.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.146 Cloning-for-biomedical-research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:53-54.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 2.169 Ethical implications of xenotransplantation. Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2005:65-66.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 8.031 Conflicts of interest: biomedical research. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:178-179.
  • American Medical Association. Opinion 8.0315 Managing conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical trials. Code of Medical Ethics, Current Opinions with Annotations, 2004-2005. Chicago, IL: AMA Press, 2004:180-181.
  • American Medical Association. Principles of medical ethics, Principle I. Accessed August 27, 2004.
  • American Public Health Association. Position Paper. Supporting access to midwifery services in the United States. Am J Publ Health. 2001;91:482-485.
  • American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Code of Ethics, 1998. Accessed August 22, 2004.
  • American Society for Microbiology. Code of Ethics, 2000. Accessed August 22, 2004.
  • Amnesty International. A Prescription for Change: Health Professionals and the Exposure of Human Rights Violations. AI Index ACT/75/01/96. London; 1996. Accessed July 30, 2004.
  • Amnesty International. Sudan: Human Rights Concerns. Accessed August 30, 2004
  • Annas GJ, Grodin MA, eds. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.
  • Annas GJ. Some Choice: Law, Medicine, and the Market. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.
  • Baiev K. The Oath: A Surgeon Under Fire. New York: Walker & Co.; 2003.
  • Basoghu M. ed. Torture and Its Consequences: Current Treatment Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Bennett T. Reproductive health care in the rural United States. JAMA. 2002;287:112.
  • Bloch S, Reddaway P. Soviet Psychiatric Abuse: The Shadow over World Psychiatry. London: Victor Gollancz; 1984.
  • Bloche MG. After Abu Ghraib, physician turn thyself in. New York Times. June 10, 2004: A27.
  • British Medical Association. Medicine Betrayed: The Participation of Doctors in Human Rights Abuses. London: Zed Books; 1992.
  • Callahan D. False Hopes: Why America's Quest for Perfect Health Is a Recipe for Failure. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1998.
  • Catholic Charities.
  • Center for Victims of Torture. Accessed July 23, 2004.
  • CIA World Factbook. Accessed August 5, 2004.
  • Committee on Human Rights. Science and Human Rights. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science; 1988:23-25.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction. 1972. Accessed January 15, 2004.
  • Council of Europe. European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Accessed August 31, 2004.
  • Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, Court-initiated medical treatments in criminal cases. Unpublished report. Chicago: American Medical Association; June 1998.
  • Donohoe MT. Teen pregnancy: a call for sound science and public policy. Z Magazine. 2003;16:14-16. Accessed August 10, 2004.
  • Dower C, Miller J, O'Neil E. Taskforce on Midwifery. Charting a Course for the 21st Century: the Future of Midwifery. San Francisco: Pew Health Professions Commission and the UCSF Center for Health Professions; 1999.
  • Drazen JM, Greene MF, Wood AJJ. The FDA, politics, and Plan B. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1561-1562.
  • Elsner A. Gates of Injustice: The Crisis in America's Prisons. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall; 2004.
  • Farmer P. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. University of California Press; April 2003.
  • Farmer PE, Furin JJ, Katz JT. Global health equity. Lancet. 2004; 363(9423):1832.
  • Fimate, L. Medical ethics and torture. Journal of Indian Medical Association. 1999;97:453-456.
  • Finer LB, Henshaw SK. Abortion incidence and services in the United States in 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2003;35:6-15.
  • Ford v Wainwright, 477 US. 399.
  • Freedman LP, Wirth M, Waldman R, Chowdhury M, Rosenfield A. Millennium Development Project Task Force 4 Background Paper on Child Health and Maternal Health. Accessed August 18, 2004.
  • Freedman LP. Human rights and women's health. In: Goldman M, Hatch M, eds. Women and Health. New York: Academic Press; 2000.
  • Freedman LP. Shifting visions: "delegation" policies and the building of a "rights-based" approach to maternal mortality. J Am Med Women Assoc. 2002;54(3):154-158.
  • Gender Asylum. Accessed Aug. 8 2004.
  • Geneva Convention. Convention (III) Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949. Accessed August 31, 2004.
  • Gifford S. The meaning of lumps: a case study of the ambiguities of risk. In: James C, Stall R, Gifford S, eds. Anthropology and Epidemiology: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Health and Disease. Dordrecht: D Reidel; 1986.
  • Grassian S. Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement. Am J Psychiatry. 1983;140:1450-1454.
  • Harris S. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-1945, and the American Cover-Up. New York: Routledge; 2002.
  • Harris v McRae, 448 US 297 (1980).
  • Heggenhougen HK. The epidemiology of functional apartheid and human rights abuses. Social Science and Medicine. 1995;40:281-84.
  • Iacopino V, Allden K, Keller A. Examining Asylum Seekers: A Health Professional's Guide to Medical and Psychological Evaluations of Torture. Boston: Physicians for Human Rights; 2001.
  • Iacopino V, Özkalipçi Ö, Schlar C, et al. Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ("Istanbul Protocol"). Geneva, Switzerland: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; 2001. UN publication HR/P/PT/8. Accessed July 23, 2004.
  • Iacopino V, Peel M, eds. The Medical Documentation of Torture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002.
  • Iacopino V. Health professionals cannot be silent witnesses. West J Med. 2000;172:304.
  • Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1186b (2002).
  • Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 USC §1101(a)(42)(A) Accessed Aug. 8, 2004.
  • Institute of Medicine. Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations (2004). Washington, DC. The National Academies Press. Accessed August 27, 2004.
  • International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • International Council for the Rehabilitation of Torture Victims. Global Directory of Rehabilitation Centres and Programmes. Accessed July 23, 2004.
  • Jewish Relief Services.
  • Kowalewski M, Jahn A. Health professionals for maternity services: experiences on covering the population with quality maternity care. In: De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe V, eds. Safe Motherhood Strategies: a Review of the Evidence. Antwerp: ITG Press; 2001.
  • Kupers TA. The Mental Health Crisis Behind Bars and What We Must Do About It. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 1999.
  • Lewis NA, Schmitt E. Lawyers decided ban on torture didn't bind Bush. New York Times. June 8, 2004: A1, A10.
  • Lifton RJ. Doctors and torture. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:415-416.
  • Madigan N. Los Angeles emergency care crisis deepens. New York Times. August 21, 2004; A8.
  • Maine D, Freedman L. Shaheed F, Frautschi S, Akalin M. Risks and rights: The uses of reproductive health data. Reproductive Health Matters. 1995;6:40-51.
  • Maio, G. History of medical involvement in torture—then and now. Lancet. 2001; 357;1609-1611.
  • Marchione M. Doctors don't leave ethics behind when they join the military, experts say. Newsday. August 21, 2004. Accessed August 31, 2004.
  • Marton R, Gordon N. Torture, Human Rights, Medical Ethics, and the Case of Israel. London: Zed Books; 1995.
  • Miles SH. Abu Ghraib: its legacy for military medicine. Lancet. 2004;364:725-729.
  • NARAL web site Accessed July 27, 2004.
  • National Research Council (USA). Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism: Confronting the Dual Use Dilemma. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.
  • New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Summary of Vital Statistics, 1996-2002.
  • Ochberg F. Understanding Spousal Abuse. Accessed August 4, 2004.
  • Officials: alleged al Qaeda paymaster in custody. CNN. March 4, 2003. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • Oppenheimer JR. Accessed August 22, 2004.
  • Peel M, Iacopino V. The Medical Documentation of Torture. San Francisco, Calif: Greenwich Medical Media Ltd; 2002.
  • Pellegrino ED, Thomasma DC. The Philosophical Basis of Medical Practice. New York: Oxford University Press; 1981.
  • Petition for writ of mandamus. Filed in the case of Swift v Rumsfeld (WD Wash 2004) [April 6, 2004].
  • Physicians for Human Rights Asylum Network. Accessed July 23, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights Web site. Accessed August 11, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Bulgarian and Palestinian Health Professionals in Libya Sentenced to Death by Firing Squad. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Thys Van Mollendorff—Charges Dropped!
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Research & Investigations. Torture in Turkey and Its Unwilling Accomplices. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • Physicians for Human Rights. Update: Six Cuban Physicians Sentenced from 13 to 25 years. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • Porter E. Cost of benefits cited as factor in slump in jobs. New York Times. August 19, 2004; A1.
  • Rassmussen, OV. Medical aspects of torture. Dan Med Bull. 1990;37(1):1-88.
  • Reis C, Ahmed AT, Amowitz LL, Kushner AL, Elahi M, Iacopino V. Physician participation in human rights abuses in southern Iraq. JAMA. 2004;291:1480-1486. (Erratum, JAMA. 2004;291:2316).
  • Riggins v Nevada, 504 US. 127.
  • Rooks J. Midwifery and Childbirth in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 1997.
  • Rubenstein LS. The medical community's response torture. Lancet. 2003;361:1556.
  • Shanahan MA, Metheny WP, Star J, Peipert JF. Induced abortion: physician training and practice patterns. J Reprod Med. 1999;44:428-32.
  • Silence of the doctors. Boston Globe. August 24, 2004:A14.
  • Singh JA. American physicians and dual loyalty obligations in the war on terror. BMC Med Ethics. 2003;4:E4.
  • Singleton v State, 274 Ark. 126.
  • Sirkin S, Iacopino V, Grodin M, Danieli Y. The role of health professionals in protecting and promoting human rights: a paradigm for professional responsibility. In: Danieli Y, Stamatopoulou E, Dias CJ, eds. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Fifty Years and Beyond; 1998.
  • Stark E, Flitcraft A. Women at Risk Domestic Violence and Women's Health.
    Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, Calif.; 1996.
  • Starr P. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books; 1982.
  • Stein D. Gender asylum reflects mistaken priorities. Human Rights Brief. [serial online] Spring 1996. Accessed Aug. 8 2004.
  • Stevenson RW. White House says prisoner policy set humane tone. New York Times. June 23, 2004: A1.
  • United Nations Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights. General Comment 14 on the Right to Health. Accessed August 18, 2004.
  • United Nations Economic and Social Council. The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health, November 8, 2000. E/C.12/2000/4 General Comment of the UN Economic and Social Council. Accessed July 30, 2004.
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Geneva, Switzerland: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; 1987.
  • United Nations. All Human Rights for All. Fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • United Nations. International Covenant On Civil And Political Rights. Accessed July 20, 2004.
  • United Nations. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Accessed August 31, 2004.
  • United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Accessed Aug. 8 2004.
  • United Nations News Centre. Darfur: A Humanitarian Crisis. Accessed August 30, 2004.
  • United States Department of Justice. Executive Office for Immigration Review. Immigration Court San Francisco, California. In the Matter of Rodi Adalí Alvarado-Peña, Respondent. Decision overturned by Matter of R-A-, Int. Dec. 3403 (BIA 1999), vacated (A.G. 2001).
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  • Uvin P. Human Rights and Development. Bloomfield, Conn: Kumanian Press; 2004.
  • Walzer M. On Toleration. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1999.
  • Washington v Harper, 494 US. 210.
  • Weinstein HM, Dansky L, Iacopino V. Torture and war trauma survivors in primary care practice. West J Med. 1996;165:112-118.
  • WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF, World Bank. Reduction of Maternal Mortality: A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank Statement. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999.
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  • World Health Organization, International Confederation of Midwives, International Federation of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians. Making Pregnancy Safer: The Critical Role of the Skilled Attendant. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.
  • World Health Organization. Violence by intimate partners. In: Violence Prevention. Accessed August 9, 2004.
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  • www.humanrightswatch.org.
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